The Health Sector
- Yemen is still experiencing the worst humanitarian crisis around the world, with more than 80% of the population in need of some form of assistance. Moreover, 20 million people face food insecurity, and 14 million need urgent humanitarian interventions.
- Many health centers and hospitals are still lacking many health and medicinal materials, especially those related to solutions for dialysis and chronic diseases. In addition, some hospitals stopped operating because they could not provide the most basic medicines and medical supplies, especially as Hodeidah port has become unable to receive ships and vessels loaded with medical and food items due to the arbitrary restrictions imposed by the coalition countries.
- The agreement related to establishing a medical air bridge to transport patients from Yemen to abroad for life-saving treatment, which is a haven for thousands of patients, failed to save their lives. This agreement, reached with the Ministry of Health in Sana’a and the World Health Organization, under the supervision of the United Nations Humanitarian Coordinator, demonstrates the lack of seriousness of the United Nations and its organizations in saving the lives of the Yemeni people.
- Six years have passed since the beginning of war and siege of the Coalition Countries on Yemen, which resulted in the collapse of the healthcare system within the complicity of the UN and its humanitarian organizations in dealing seriously with the health response that all health facilities need. The situation can be summed up as follows:
- The War Coalition countries targeted all the health facilities in Yemen. The number of health facilities destroyed completely and damaged partially has topped 600 facilities. This resulted in millions of citizens being deprived of basic health care. Not only did they deprive citizens of health care, but they also imposed a blockade and arbitrary restrictions on the entry of medical supplies and life-saving medications, especially those needed for people with chronic diseases. Still more, they prevented patients from traveling to receive life-saving treatment abroad.
- The countries of the War Coalition prevented the Ministry of Health in the National Salvation Government in Sana’a from importing important and basic medical devices and equipment. Moreover, the useful life span of 93% of these medical devices and equipment in various hospitals and health centers have expired and could not be repaired.
- More than 48 thousand employees in the sector at the central and local levels do not receive their salaries because of transferring CBY administration from Sana’a, the Capital, to Aden governorate. Besides, 95% of doctors and employees have quitted their jobs due to displacement, their departure from Yemen, as well as the suspension of health facilities. In fact, more than 60% of health facilities stopped providing health services to citizens.
- 7 out of 28 dialysis centers were closed, and approximately 15 were threatened with closure at the beginning of 2021.
- Lack of 98 brands of medicines that were finished and not manufactured locally, according to their medical names, which are “subdivided into hundreds of brand names;” in addition to the lack of more than 19 types of medical and diagnostic supplies. More than 82 drug importers stopped practicing their activities in bringing and importing medicines and various healthcare materials.
- More than 14 pharmaceutical companies were forced to close their branches inside Yemen due to the arbitrary restrictions imposed by the War Coalition countries. Among these restrictions are more than 3,619 types and categories of medicines and medical supplies which were prevented from being imported into Yemen.
- There is an increase in the average annual requirement for dozens of pharmaceutical items from 200 to 500%;
- There is a double increase in the price of medicines as a result of the doubling of the transportation and customs costs imposed by the War Coalition countries, and the so-called legitimate government in the areas they control.
- The lack of medicines and medical supplies, the scarcity of preventive means and medicines, such as vaccines, clean drinking water as well as the accumulation of hundreds of tons of garbage and waste. This has led to an increase in deaths among patients suffering from chronic diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, renal failure, and various types of cancer.
- The countries of War Coalition against Yemen have been targeting various environment-related projects, such as water and sanitation, which resulted in the spread of malnutrition, especially among children and pregnant women. Consequently, many citizens have been infected with various diseases and epidemics, such as dengue fever and malaria. On the other hand, a large proportion of the support provided by international organizations to the health sector was reduced.
- As a result of the use of internationally prohibited and carcinogenic weapons by the Coalition of War on Yemen, the rate of the annual incidence of cancer rose from 2.3% before the Aggression to 5.5% after the Aggression. In March 2021, the number of people with cancerous tumors increased to 72,000.
- The proportion of patients attending the Cancer Centre for periodic follow-up at the Consultation Clinics and the External Delivery Section for taking the chemical dose decreased by 20% after the Aggression. This is mainly due to the difficulty of reaching the health centers safely as a result of the frequent targeting of bridges and roads by the countries of the War Coalition against Yemen.
- There is a decline and weakness in the provision of television radiology service (U/S), the surgical intervention service and the radiation therapy service, by 50% after the war on Yemen. There is also difficulty in obtaining radioactive sources and linear accelerators due to the land, sea and air blockade, the closure of Sana’a International Airport and the scarcity of financial resources. The radiation therapy service may be permanently stopped due to the poor efficiency of the currently available radioactive source, which could cause a humanitarian disaster for cancer patients.
- Some diagnostic services that were provided free of charge to patients at the Centre have been suspended, such as Tumor Marker and Mammography Test services, as a result of the embargo, lack of financial resources, difficult maintenance of medical equipment and unavailability of spare parts.
- 50% of the chemical medicines required for patients, especially targeted medications and those medicines that need to be transported at certain temperatures are not available. This is due to the blockade and the war on Yemen, the closure of Sana’a International Airport, and the departure of most international pharmaceutical companies outside the country.
- The availability of essential drugs, antibiotics and intravenous solutions has fallen to 80% as a result of the embargo and the scarcity of financial resources.
Drinking and Irrigation Water
- Water installations, in particular drinking water tanks, were exposed to serious chemical contamination as a result of using various bombs and munitions by the War Coalition countries in several governorates, causing the outbreak of different diseases, including cholera, which during the past years affected millions of Yemenis.
- Exacerbating the suffering of civilians in Yemen, as they faced difficulties obtaining access to clean drinking water. The rates of drinking water needs increased for millions of civilians.
- Hundreds of thousands of agricultural lands have been affected, as they depend heavily on water from dams and water barrages.
- More than 15.4 million people are in need of support of basic needs. Out of them, 8.7 million are in urgent need of water and sanitation. Yemenis are increasingly being forced to resort to negative coping mechanisms in terms of access to water, sanitation, hygiene and practices. There are significant increased risks of malnutrition as well as increased and widespread of water, sanitation and hygiene-related diseases, including cholera and dengue fever. The protection of civilians remains a priority in Yemen. Some of the highest levels of vulnerability revolve around IDP camps which lack sufficient services.
- There has been a sharp decline in the coverage of clean drinking water. The coverage rate decreased from 10% to 66%, given the impact on the water and sanitation sector services. The War Coalition countries attacked dozens of water tanks, water wells, springs, and solar-operated water pumps, let alone the power cuts, lack of fuel, high average cost per unit produced, maintenance cost increased by 95%, and the inability of workers to fulfill their financial obligations. Water facilities have also been damaged, and water projects in the public, mixed and private sectors have stopped (the activities of many local institutions have been suspended). The accumulation of solid waste, garbage and dirt further exacerbated the environmental situation in cities and urban areas.
- An estimated number of 20.5 million Yemeni people do not have access to clean water. As many as 4 million IDPs, who live with their relatives, in public buildings or under the open sky further compounded the suffering of the population and the cost of life. Many households that used to be food secure are now stuck in the circle of food insecurity. This means that individuals’ need for drinking water and sanitation services has increased to 80% at the current situation compared to the years preceding the war. The War Coalition countries have not only sought to prevent the entry of fuel required for operating water pumps, but also carried out direct and deliberate air strikes on drinking water wells, destroying the tools needed to pump drinking water underground.
- Basic education, higher education, technical and vocational education have substantially deteriorated, leading Yemeni students to miss on their education. This has also affected their scientific and technical capabilities, for several reasons. The War Coalition countries are to blame for this, as follows:
- Destroying more than 3,676 educational facilities – the total number of schools that were directly targeted by the War Coalition countries in 22 governorates – where more than 419 schools were totally destroyed, more than 1,506 schools were partially destroyed, more than 756 schools were closed, and 995 schools were used to provide shelter for IDPs who were displaced from their homes.
- Totally and partially destroying more than 43 public and private universities and colleges; abducting university and college teaching staff and detaining them in the War Coalition countries’ prisons; and assassinating academics through terrorist organizations, armed forces, and local militias loyal to the War Coalition countries.
Republic of Yemen
The National Team
for External Contact
- Totally and partially destroying more than 65 technical and technological institutes (industrial, agricultural, commercial, marine … etc.), community colleges, vocational training centers, Technical Education Office, and Woman Development Workshop.
- The effects and repercussions of targeting educational facilities in Yemen:
- Halting the educational process in a number of schools, universities, and technical and technological institutes in most of the areas targeted by the War Coalition countries, let alone the severe decrease in operating expenses;
- Spreading fear and intimidation among a large number of families into enrolling their children in schools; so, the school dropout rate has increased to 47%, i.e. 2.9 million. Thousands of students enrolled in institutes and universities suspended their studies due to the lack of financial means in its simplest form.
- One out of every five schools can no longer be used in Yemen because they have been either damaged, destroyed, closed or used to shelter IDP families. The schools in villages were closed since all families along with the school teachers moved to other places as IDPs, leading to the suspension of the educational process in those villages.
- More than 2 million children are out of school, compared to 1.5 million before the war.
- More than 194,417 male and female teachers have not received their salaries since August 2016.
- Suspension of four million four hundred thirty-five thousand four hundred and nine (4,435,409) male and female students from basic education.
- Obstruction of textbook printing since 2015 to date, which caused a substantial decrease of textbooks and other school materials. Furthermore, there is a lack of financial resources required for the textbook printing process and the donor countries suspended the support thereto. The Ministry of Education faces a huge deficit in printing approximately 56,615,044 textbooks, i.e. 84.8%.
- Teachers’ strikes due to the cessation of their salary payments, which led to the suspension of the teaching profession.
- Many students suffer psychologically due to malnutrition, the displacement of their families, and the military operations run by the War Coalition countries on various governorates in Yemen.
- Tens of thousands of children are deprived of their right to education as a result of their families’ inability to provide for their most basic needs, including breakfast and essential school materials.
- Hundreds of scholarship students have been impeded access to continue their education abroad because of being unable to travel through Sana’a International Airport which is the only exit point to travel overseas.
- The cessation of the salary payments to teachers and academics throughout the war led to a lower or no income. Therefore, several of them resorted to manual labor to earn a living for their children. Having depleted their savings, they become daily paid workers in construction or street vendors.
- Suspension of dispatching Yemeni students on scholarships abroad.
Displacement and Homelessness of Several Yemeni and Non-Yemeni Families
- The War Coalition countries and mercenaries have used IDP camps as human shields and direct targets for their own military attacks. They targeted many IDP areas, killing and wounding hundreds of IDPs, mostly women and children.
- Day after day, the humanitarian crisis in Yemen increases due to constant air strikes on civilians by the War Coalition countries. 12,770 IDPs, about 1,896 families, during the period from January until mid-February 2021, moved from Hodeidah, Marib and Al-Dhalei governorates because of the intensification of warfare and escalation of air strikes on civilians who fled to safe areas in Dhamar, Sana’a, Capital Secretariat, Hajjah governorates as well as to safe areas in Marib and Hodeidah governorates.
- Recently, from the end of 2020 to the beginning of 2021, the number of IDPs increased due to the indiscriminate attacks perpetrated by the US & KSA-led War Coalition on various villages and cities. As a result, several families fled from their homes to safe places leaving behind all their belongings. Their only concern was to save their lives from the shells, rockets and ammunition of such indiscriminate and direct attacks.
- During that period, the collected data indicate that the most affected governorate by IDPs is Hodeidah since it received 4,495 IDPs, fleeing their homes because of the ongoing violations by the War Coalition countries and mercenaries that launch air strikes and direct bombing raids on civilian homes even in villages. On the other hand, both Dhamar and Hajjah governorates ranked second and third in terms of emergency IDP numbers from January 1st to March 10th, 2021. Similarly, Amran governorate received 1,984 IDPs, out of which 1,312 IDPs came during the recent displacement wave.
- All in all, statistics by official authorities indicate that the total number of IDPs from the start of the aggression until March 10th, 2021, reached more than 4,509,328 IDPs – about 672,239 families – and more than 881,280 persons affected by the aggression.
- The situation of refugees in Yemen has deteriorated in all areas as a result of the closure of UNHCR Office for several months following the start of the War Coalition countries’ operations. The same is confirmed in the official reports of the refugee representatives’ collective complaints about the deterioration of all the services that the UNHCR used to provide through its implementing partners. When the UNHCR transported some refugees from the territory of the Republic of Yemen by sea, the War Coalition countries directed military attacks, killing and wounding dozens of them.
Agriculture and Livestock
- Thousands of vast areas of agricultural land have been destroyed and ruined. The acute shortage of fodder and agricultural production inputs such as seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, among others, caused a decline in the domestic grain production by 50%.
- A failure to market agricultural and animal products internally and externally led to lower agricultural and livestock production, which contributes 21 per cent of the State’s GNI.
- A decline in the production of authentic Yemeni honey, which during the pre-aggression years reached more than 25 thousand tons per year;
- The ongoing aggression on Yemen has weakened all economic activities, including agriculture. Although the prices of some agricultural inputs decreased seasonally in January 2021, the inputs remain expensive and are often deficient. High fuel prices restrict agricultural activities, especially irrigation. To face the high production costs, reports indicate that farmers have switched from irrigated crops to rainfed agriculture, which leads to lower production and more reliance on family labor rather than hiring workers.
- The prices of many food commodities at the beginning of 2021 remained stable or slightly decreased compared to the previous years, but they still exceed the pre-crisis levels (February 2015) by two or three times. Although a material shortage of goods has not been reported, the high prices severely limit families’ access to many food and essential commodities.
Abduction, Detention and Prison Torture
- The War Coalition mercenaries abducted citizens during their travel or return – whether merchants, students, pilgrims, or patients – from the security points under their control and putting them in prisons without any charges or grounds. There is not even a legal ground for throwing and detaining them in prison for more than the legally specified period, which amounts to a flagrant violation of the rules and provisions of international human rights law (IHRL) and international humanitarian law (IHL).
- Reports by humanitarian agencies confirm that War Coalition mercenaries arrested, detained, or abducted the above-mentioned citizens from the security points during their return or travel on grounds of their belonging to certain families, or because of their names and surnames, without any charge or crime lodged against them.
- Through their mercenaries, the War Coalition countries practiced the most horrific types of physical and psychological torture against those abducted and arrested citizens. On the one hand, they become subject to exploitation and trafficking. That is to say, the mercenaries bargain with the abductees’ families to pay large sums of money to release their breadwinners. On the other hand, the mercenaries sell some of the abductees to the War Coalition countries, especially Saudi Arabia that deliberately throw them in its own prisons to barter with the army and Popular Committees for the release of its captives.
- At the end of December 2020 and beginning of January 2021, armed forces affiliated to Islah (Reform) Party and loyal to the War Coalition countries in Marib governorate abducted eight IDP women from their camps in front of their families and children. They were taken to unknown destinations and secret prisons, after which they were transferred to detention centers inside Saudi Arabia.
- The War Coalition mercenaries abducted the Yemeni citizen, Ms. Samira Maresh, and sent her to Saudi Arabia. This constitutes a shameful act since it violates the rules of the Islamic law as well as the customs, traditions and norms of the Yemeni tribe.
- The UAE established secret prisons in the southern regions it occupies, where large numbers of Yemenis are detained. UAE leaders have practiced the worst forms of physical and psychological torture against the detainees and even raped some of them. This has been confirmed by reports of international organizations.
- The prison and reformatory infrastructure was directly bombarded by the War Coalition warplanes, which wreaked havoc and destruction in varying degrees. ISIS, Al-Qaeda and others carried out terrorist attacks on the reformatories in (Aden, Mukalla, Lahj, Taiz, Rada’a, Amran, and Al-Mahweet), taking control of the reformatories as well as stealing and burning all their machines, equipment and supplies used for care, repair and rehabilitation.
- The conditions of prisoners have worsened further since many prisons become no longer able to provide any social, health, educational and rehabilitation-related care. This is due to the lack of material resources that were destroyed, burned and damaged by the War Coalition countries’ attacks. Rather, the fitness and structural soundness of the remaining buildings are no longer useful to provide these services. Moreover, the health and psychological care service has been greatly affected and become almost non-existent in all those prisons subjected to attacks. These services have been suspended due to the lack of medicines and primary means of health care, which the State official institutions have been unable to provide in light of the suffocating blockade imposed on Yemen as well as the cessation of the services provided by societal and international actors.
- The aggression on Yemen has caused the inmates’ isolation from the community due to their families’ fear of moving from one region to another, high prices, and low level of income. As a consequence, the families’ ability to visit their imprisoned relatives has also diminished. The prisoners worry about themselves and their families, many of which are no longer able to pay them a visit. This exacerbated living situation of the inmates, especially juveniles and women, made them feel isolated from the community.
- The inmates’ legal status throughout the past periods remained inadequate in accordance with national laws and international covenants. For this reason, most of these cases (90%) remained pending, especially those related to murder and civil right. The Saudi-led War Coalition – against Yemen in general and the judicial groups and penal institutions in particular – has contributed to the complication and delay of the cases settlement. Hence, the judicial system has nearly ceased operating.
Use of Internationally Prohibited Weapons by Countries of War Coalition against Yemen
- Yemen Executive Mine Action Center (YEMAC) revealed accurate statistics on 8 types of cluster bombs that have been used in Yemen. They were made in the United States, Britain, and Brazil.
- The Center has also revealed 13 types of cluster bombs that do not bear any data about their manufacture, and were thrown on several areas, especially in agricultural areas, such as Al-Jar farms in Hajjah governorate.
- The Center confirms that the cluster bombs discovered in separate areas in the Republic of Yemen amounted to more than 3,179 cluster bombs. The number of victims of cluster bombs reached more than 1000 persons; most of them are children and women who fell while they were in agricultural and grazing areas.
- In its report issued on 30 October 2015, Amnesty International stated, “The Saudi-led Coalition used different types of internationally prohibited weapons.” It scientifically clarified the presence of remnants of two types of cluster bombs used in the air strikes on the cities of the Republic of Yemen. They include the sub-munitions of BLU-97, the CBU-97 carrier bomb, and another more sophisticated type called CBU-105, a weapon with a sensor-powered detonator. Cluster bombs can spread dozens of munitions and bombs over a wide area like a football stadium. Many of these sub-munitions or bombs may not explode the moment they hit the ground, making them a threat to kill anyone who touches them or stumbles upon them in the future.
- In this context, Amnesty International confirmed that, “the Saudi-led coalition forces used in one of their attacks a Brazilian variant of internationally banned cluster munitions on a residential neighborhood in Ahma area in Sa’ada, northern Yemen, wounding at least four people and leaving dangerous unexploded submunitions strewn around the surrounding farmlands.”
- In a joint report by Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch, they confirmed that the Coalition Aggression countries used British-made PGM-500 ‘Hakim’ air-to-surface cruise missiles. They revealed in their analysis that this type of missile was traced in a large number of populated areas and the remnants of the weapon found in the sites were consistent with the specifications of the air-launched “Hakim” BGM-500 missile, according to the reports of the organization.
- On November 27, 2020, the warplanes of the Aggression Coalition led by the US, KSA and UAE, launched an air raid targeting the Horse Stable of the Military College with a US-made bomb, GBU-39/B Small Diameter Bomb (SDB), a 250 lb (110 kg) precision-guided glide bomb. The remnants of the bomb at the site of explosion indicate that the bomb refers to a battery for a US company called Eagle Picher Technologies, which is a leading US battery manufacturer.
Ill-treatment of Yemeni Prisoners in the Jails of Saudi Arabia and its Agents in Yemen
- The countries of War Coalition and the affiliated groups supported by them have practiced many violations against the prisoners of the army and the Popular Committees in their prisons, such as assaulting the lives of prisoners who were captured and killed with various kinds of methods, or by maiming and dragging them in the streets, or by torturing them psychologically detention centers. The countries of War Coalition on Yemen varied their practices against the prisoners from the Army and the Popular Committees, including the unavailability of an adequate toilet for a number of prisoners.
- The countries of War Coalition and their armed groups have practiced bad and disgraceful acts against the prisoners of the Army and the Popular Committees with regard to health care as those in charge of the prisons of the War Coalition and their mercenaries do not provide medical treatment; or call the appropriate doctor to look after the prisoners when they fall sick or when some of them were infected with any illness. They did not provide prisoners with certain medicines that they used to take before their detention, exposing them to infectious diseases, such as scabies and other diseases due to poor hygiene in the detention rooms, and the lack of proper treatment.
- Prisoners from the Army and the Popular Committees suffered severely, their conditions deteriorated and their bodies were affected due to the malnutrition persevered by those in charge of the detention of the Coalition Countries and their mercenaries.
- Prisoners of the Army and the Popular Committees detained in the prisons of the coalition countries and their armed groups were prevented from drinking water.
- Prisoners of the Army and the Popular Committees – in the prisons and detention centers of the War Coalition countries, their mercenaries and agents – were denied their right to practice their religious rituals.
- The Coalition countries and their mercenaries used various forms of psychological torture of the prisoners. The Aggression Coalition and its mercenaries continued to use the most horrible forms of psychological torture on the prisoners, most notably the threat and intimidation with severe and insulting psychological words, such as “We will slaughter you; we will kill you, we will burn you alive; we will throw you from the top of the mountain or building; we will kill your family”.
Crimes and Violations of the War Coalition against Yemeni Children
- Children have been victims of hundreds of brutal massacres committed by the countries of War Coalition against Yemen since the very start of their military operations. Preliminary statistics on the number of child victims indicate 9% of the total numbers of child victims are victims of direct war crimes and acts. On the other hand, the indirect child victims amount to more than 66% of the total number of children in Yemen.
- More than 10 million children have had profound psychological effects, adversely affecting their ways of thinking, feelings, conducts and relationships with those around them. In March 2021, about 600,000 pre-term babies need nurseries to survive due to lack of fuel to operate them.
- Between 5 and 6 children die every day, and more than 5.4 million children are at risk of childhood diseases, with the closure of at least 232 health units providing health care services, immunization and nutrition.
- All child-care centers and kindergartens have been greatly affected, especially (childcare homes, safe child centers for the protection and rehabilitation of street children, orphan care centers). Some have been destroyed and others have been shut down due to military attacks by the countries of War Coalition against Yemen.
Crimes and Violations Committed against Yemeni Women by War Coalition countries
- Yemeni women in areas under the control of the Saudi-Emirati occupation have been subjected to murders, rapes, and abductions.
- Yemeni women have been deprived of their right to access education and health; rather, they suffer from food insecurity, spread of diseases, epidemics, and psychological effects as a result of war, blockade, displacement and homelessness.
- Yemeni women have experienced abortion and miscarriage due to the fear and panic caused by the war launched by the War Coalition countries.
- Yemeni women have been denied access to maternal health care, as a result of which pregnant women give birth in very difficult health conditions, and some women lose their lives due to pregnancy complications or diseases that could have been cured if they accessed health facilities in time.
- A report by UNPFA of 2020 indicated that more than one million pregnant women in Yemen suffer from malnutrition, and that more than 144,000 pregnant women are at risk of pregnancy and miscarriage complications as a result of their inability to access medical facilities and health services.
- The Ministry of Public Health and Population issued a report in March 2021 indicating that 1,800,000 women suffer from malnutrition, half of whom are pregnant.
FSO SAFER Tanker
- On March 20, 2021, the Supreme Political Council and the National Salvation Government warned the United Nations not to continue putting conditions outside the agreement for the maintenance of the floating oil tank, Safer. This reflects the desire not to implement the agreement, and confirms its indifference to environmental pollution in the event of a leakage in FSO Safer Tanker. The National Salvation Government holds the United Nations fully responsible for any leakage due to the obstacles and the unrealistic and irrational conditions out of the signed agreement related to the maintenance of FSO Safer Tanker. The last of those conditions set by the UN was that “United Nations experts demand to secure a circle with a radius of six nautical miles around FSO Safer Tanker, as an additional condition.” This indicates the inefficiency of the United Nations and its attempt to provide service to the countries of War Coalition in order to impede the implementation of what was signed.
- The concerned national Committee for the Implementation of the Urgent Maintenance Agreement and the Comprehensive Assessment of the FSO Safer Oil Tanker, affiliated to the National Salvation Government in Sana’a, expressed its full commitment to the implementation of the Agreement, showing deep concerns for the safety of the marine environment in the Red Sea, and calling on the UN to show seriousness in implementing the Agreement and to stop making misleading accusations and statements.